Meditation relieves pain better than morphine In an experiment conducted by Wake Forest Baptist Medical Centre, 15 healthy volunteers, who were new to meditation, attended four minute classes to learn meditation, focusing on the breath. Meditation produced a greater reduction in pain than even morphine or other pain-relieving drugs, which typically reduce pain ratings by about 25 percent. Meditation increases the ability to keep focus in spite of distractions A study from Emory University, Atlanta, demonstrated that participants with more meditation experience exhibit increased connectivity within the brain networks controlling attention. These neural relationships may be involved in the development of cognitive skills, such as maintaining attention and disengaging from distraction.
References and Further Reading 1. Conceptual Framework for the Debate Psychological egoism is a thesis about motivation, usually with a focus on the motivation of human intentional action.
A famous story involving Abraham Lincoln usefully illustrates this see Rachelsp. Lincoln was allegedly arguing that we are all ultimately self-interested when he suddenly stopped to save a group of piglets from drowning. His interlocutor seized the moment, attempting to point out that Lincoln is a living counter-example to his own theory; Lincoln seemed to be concerned with something other than what he took to be his own well-being.
But Lincoln reportedly replied: The story illustrates that there are many subtle moves for the defender of psychological egoism to make.
So it is important to get a clear idea of the competing egoistic versus altruistic theories and of the terms of the debate between them. The Bare Theses Egoism is often contrasted with altruism.
Although the egoism-altruism debate concerns the possibility of altruism in some sense, the ordinary term "altruism" may not track the issue that is of primary interest here. In at least one ordinary use of the term, for someone to act altruistically depends on her being motivated solely by a concern for the welfare of another, without any ulterior motive to simply benefit herself.
To this extent, this ordinary notion of altruism is close to what is of philosophical interest. But there are differences. Developing a clear and precise account of the egoism-altruism debate is more difficult than it might seem at first. To make the task easier, we may begin with quite bare and schematic definitions of the positions in the debate Mayp.
All of our ultimate desires are egoistic. Some of our ultimate desires are altruistic. Answering these and related questions will provide the requisite framework for the debate. Altruistic Desires We can begin to add substance to our bare theses by characterizing what it is to have an altruistic versus an egoistic desire.
With these points in mind, we can characterize egoistic and altruistic desires in the following way: They do claim, however, that all such altruistic desires ultimately depend on an egoistic desire that is more basic. In other words, we have an ulterior motive when we help others—one that likely tends to fly below the radar of consciousness or introspection.
Thus, we must draw a common philosophical distinction between desires that are for a means to an end and desires for an end in itself. Desires for pleasure and the avoidance of pain are paradigmatic ultimate desires, since people often desire these as ends in themselves, not as a mere means to anything else.
But the class of ultimate desires may include much more than this. Relating Egoism and Altruism There are two important aspects to highlight regarding how psychological egoism and altruism relate to one another.
First, psychological egoism makes a stronger, universal claim that all of our ultimate desires are egoistic, while psychological altruism merely makes the weaker claim that some of our ultimate desires are altruistic.
Consequently, psychological egoism is easier to refute than the opposing view. He does not desire this as a means to some other end, such as enjoyment at the sight of such a spectacle he might, for example, secure this in his will for after his death.Short Term and Long Term Effects of Bullying.
One longitudinal study led by a group of scientists in Norway investigated the long-term psychological effects of adolescents. Results of the study indicated that all groups involved in bullying during adolescence, both bullies and victims, experienced adverse mental health outcomes in adulthood.
Short term memory is the ability to keep information in mind for a short amount of time. Remembering a phone number long enough to find a piece of paper is an example. The brain keeps information in its short term memory for a small period of time. The amount of time the mind is . Some long-term effects are carry-over short-term effects.
Since fat attracts THC and cellular walls in your body are composed of fat, THC gets sucked up by cells everywhere. Long-Term Side Effects. Methadone addiction is a very real issue for many people. In cases where methadone is prescribed for pain, the relief the drug provides can lead to chemical dependency in a person suffering from chronic pain, which is why some physicians are hesitant to prescribe methadone to their patients at all.
The exercise effect. Evidence is mounting for the benefits of exercise, yet psychologists don’t often use exercise as part of their treatment arsenal. The effects of ecstasy are mainly stimulants and hallucinogens, making it a widely used drug for recreational use and long-term parties.
Ecstasy, also known as MDMA or 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic drug that promotes euphoria and social ties.