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She met and married Henry Beveridge in Calcutta where she had gone in to open a school for Indian girls.
William Beveridge was educated at Charterhousea leading public school near the market town of Godalming in Surrey, followed by Balliol College at the University of Oxfordwhere he studied Mathematics and Classics, obtaining a first class degree in both.
He later studied law.
He became interested in the social services and wrote about the subject for the Morning Post newspaper. His interest in the causes of unemployment began in when he worked at Toynbee Halla settlement house in London.
There he worked closely with Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb and was influenced by their theories of social reform, becoming active in promoting old age pensionsfree school mealsand campaigning for a national system of labour exchanges. Churchill invited Beveridge to join the Board of Trade, and he organised the implementation of the national system of labour exchanges and National Insurance to combat unemployment and poverty.
During the First World War he was involved in mobilising and controlling manpower. After the war, he was knighted and made permanent secretary to the Ministry of Food.
Over the next few years he served on several commissions and committees on social policy. He was so highly influenced by the Fabian Society socialists — in particular by Beatrice Webbwith whom he worked on the Poor Laws report — that he could be considered one of their number.
He published academic economic works including his early work on unemployment The Fabians made him a director of the LSE ina post he retained until In he helped set up the Academic Assistance Council. This helped prominent academics who had been dismissed from their posts on grounds of race, religion or political position to escape Nazi persecution.
Wartime work[ edit ] Beveridge in the s Three years later, Ernest BevinMinister of Labour in the wartime National government, invited Beveridge to take charge of the Welfare department of his Ministry. Beveridge refused, but declared an interest in organising British manpower in wartime Beveridge had come to favour a strong system of centralised planning.
Bevin was reluctant to let Beveridge have his way but did commission him to work on a relatively unimportant manpower survey from June and so Beveridge became a temporary civil servant. Although Brown had made the announcement, the inquiry had largely been urged by Minister without Portfolio Arthur Greenwoodand Bevin suggested to Greenwood making Beveridge chairman of the committee.
Beveridge, at first uninterested and seeing the committee as a distraction from his work on manpower, accepted only reluctantly. It proposed that all people of working age should pay a weekly national insurance contribution.
In return, benefits would be paid to people who were sick, unemployed, retired or widowed. Beveridge argued that this system would provide a minimum standard of living "below which no one should be allowed to fall". It recommended that the government should find ways of fighting the "five giants on the road of reconstruction" of Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.
Beveridge included as one of three fundamental assumptions the fact that there would be a National Health Service of some sort, a policy already being worked on in the Ministry of Health. He appealed to conservatives and other sceptics by arguing that welfare institutions would increase the competitiveness of British industry in the post-war period, not only by shifting labour costs like healthcare and pensions out of corporate ledgers and onto the public account but also by producing healthier, wealthier and thus more motivated and productive workers who would also serve as a great source of demand for British goods.
Full Employment in a Free Societywritten in expressed how this goal might be gained. He believed that the discovery of objective socio-economic laws could solve the problems of society. Beveridge talking to an American fighter pilot hospitalised at University College, Oxford during the Second World War Later inBeveridge, who had recently joined the Liberal Partywas elected to the House of Commons in a by-election to succeed George Charles Greywho had died on the battlefield in NormandyFrance, on the first day of Operation Bluecoat on 30 July Beveridge briefly served as Member of Parliament MP for the constituency of Berwick-upon-Tweedduring which time he was prominent in the Radical Action group, which called for the party to withdraw from the war-time electoral pact and adopt more radical policies.
However, he lost his seat at the general electionwhen he was defeated by the Conservative candidate, Robert Thorpby a majority of 1, votes. Attlee announced he would introduce the Welfare State outlined in the Beveridge Report.
This included the establishment of a National Health Service in with taxpayer funded medical treatment for all. A national system of benefits was also introduced to provide "social security" so that the population would be protected from the "cradle to the grave". He was the author of Power and Influence Though never fully established, Lancelot Hogbena fierce anti-eugenicist, was named its chair.
However, whilst he held views in support of eugenics, he did not believe the report had any overall "eugenic value".The text of these volumes is taken from the first edition of Cotton’s version, printed in 3 vols.
8vo, , and republished in , , , , and , in . Jun 30, · Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is to the body, and deprived of it we suffer a mental affliction as disfiguring as rickets.
Latter-day Saints believe that monogamy—the marriage of one man and one woman—is the Lord’s standing law of marriage.1 In biblical times, the Lord commanded some of His people to practice plural marriage—the marriage of one man and more than one woman.2 Some early members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also received and obeyed this commandment given through .
35 quotes from Essays in Idleness: The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō: ‘To sit alone in the lamplight with a book spread out before you and hold intimate convers.
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THE PRELUDE BOOK THIRD RESIDENCE AT CAMBRIDGE IT was a dreary morning when the wheels Rolled over a wide plain o'erhung with clouds, And nothing cheered our way till first we saw The long-roofed chapel of King's College lift Turrets and pinnacles .