Writing a Good Research Question Writing a Good Research Question The following unit will discuss the basics of how to develop a good research questions and will provide examples of well-designed questions.
Translating constructs into operational definitions What are constructs? The table below provides some examples of these different types of constructs: Take the following examples: The meaning we are trying to convey Construct Prejudice or discrimination on the grounds of a person's age Ageism The problem of obesity - the state of being grossly fat or overweight - among children Child obesity The formal union of a man and a woman, typically recognized by law, by which they become husband and wife Marriage Extreme scarcity of food Construct good research paper The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma Euthanasia A long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance Tsunami NOTE: Definitions are verbatim from Oxford Dictionaries www.
We often refer to constructs as mental abstractions because seldom are constructs directly observable e. Since constructs are very broad and abstract, conceptual clarity has become one of the cornerstones of good research. Constructs vary significantly in their complexity.
By complexity, we mean the relative difficulty that people have understanding and measuring i. Easy to understand and measure: We know that the construct, sex, has just two attributes in humans: If we choose to include the construct, sex, in our research, this would be relatively easy to justify.
After all, most people would associate the construct, sex, as referring to males or females. More difficult to understand and measure: Some constructs that we think we understand, and that we think the reader will understand, can be more complex than we first thought. For example, take gender.
You often see students include the construct, gender, in questionnaires, giving respondents just two options i. This is because the constructs of sex and gender are often used interchangeably.
But social scientists would argue that gender is a more complex construct, including additional attributes to just male and female; perhaps including bisexual, homosexual, transsexual, and so forth. In reality, a significant proportion of constructs are of the more complex type.
This difference in complexity raises two issues: Expressing the meaning of constructs using theoretical or nominal definitions Constructs provide a common language and shared meaning that help us to communicate about things clearly and precisely. Imagine a discussion about marriage, having to continuously explain terms such as divorce, civil partnerships, love, sex, intimacy, religion, sanctity, cohabitation, engagement, and so forth.
Imagine a debate about famine, without knowing the meaning of other constructs such as starvation, drought, poverty, disaster relief, food supply, survival, nutrition, aid, and so forth. Without a clear and precise way of explaining what these constructs mean, we would struggle to communicate to our audience.
Constructs often lack clarity and precision; they are ambiguous.
Sometimes in undergraduate and master? However, constructs need to be expressed i. Also, constructs need to be made explicit so that they can a be criticised, b related to other constructs, c operationally defined, and d tested i.
As a result, theoretical or nominal definitions are used to provide conceptual clarity, using synonyms to express the construct we are interested in.
Constructs can be expressed using words e. Constructs are also often defined in terms of other constructs e. However, some constructs e.
Some example theoretical and nominal definitions are presented in the table below: Construct Theoretical or nominal definitions Ageism "A process of systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old, just as racism and sexism accomplish this for skin colour and gender" Butler,p.
Euthanasia "The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma" Oxford Dictionaries, Construct Disability Perspective 1: Bio-medical approach Views disability as a medical or physical condition that can be prevented or reduced through interventions that are biological, medical or genetic in nature.HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission ( is usually a good number).
Include additional data, multimedia in the Supporting Information.) Discuss the . 2] Use appropriate descriptive words: A good research paper title should contain key words used in the manuscript and should define the nature of the study.
Think about terms people would use to search for your study and include them in your title. Research Questions and Hypotheses - This book chapter takes an in-depth look at the principles used to design and write research questions and hypotheses for qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods research and describes the differences in approaches based upon the type of research.
HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal The authors should make every effort to make a good presentation with proper usage of English grammar.
Ask a colleague to comment on your paper before. Sep 27, · Edit Article How to Write a Research Paper. In this Article: Article Summary Choosing Your Topic Researching Making an Outline Writing Your Paper Sample Research Papers and Outlines Community Q&A When studying at higher levels of school and throughout college, you will likely be asked to prepare research papers%().
A good research paper is basically a sustained inquiry about a particular subject. Not only is the student answering a question, but he/she must also ensure that the statements one is making are valid.